Breadcrumbs for Websites: Best Practices & Examples

How to use breadcrumbs

This post originally appeared on babich.biz, written by Nick Babich. Nick is a software developer who’s passionate about user experience.

Breadcrumbs (or breadcrumb trail) is a secondary navigation system that shows a user’s location on a site or web app.

The term came from the Hansel and Gretel fairy tale in which the main characters create a trail of breadcrumbs in order to track back to their house.

In this article, we explore the use of breadcrumbs on websites and discuss some best practices for applying breadcrumb trails to your own website or application.

Highly recommended read!

Same as in fairy tale, visitors need to know their location in the site’s hierarchical structure in order to possibly browse to a higher level in the hierarchy.

Breadcrumbs website navigation is visual aid

Breadcrumbs serve as an effective visual aid, indicating the current location of the user within the website’s hierarchy.

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This property makes breadcrumb navigation a great source of contextual information for users and helps them to find answers on following questions:

  • Where am I? Breadcrumbs inform visitors of their location in relation to the entire site hierarchy.
  • Where can I go? Breadcrumbs improve the findability of site sections and pages. The structure of the site is more easily understood when it is laid out in a breadcrumb than if it is put into a menu.
  • Should I go there? Breadcrumbs communicate content value and encourage browsing (e.g. e-commerce site visitor might land on a product page, the product might not be a good match, but the visitor might want to view other products from the same category). This, in turn, reduces the overall site bounce rate.

Reduces number of actions

In terms of usabilitybreadcrumbs reduce the number of actions a site visitor needs to take in order to get to a higher-level page.

Instead of using the browser’s “Back” button or the site’s primary navigation to return to a higher-level page, visitors can use the breadcrumbs.

site audit, which includes information on page depth, revels valuable insights into the minimal number of clicks visitors must undertake to reach a specific page from the homepage.

Take up minimal space

A compact mechanism not taking much of the page space as it is just the text with links in a horizontal line. The benefit is that they have little to no negative impact on content overload.

No users suffer problems because of breadcrumbs

People might overlook this small design element, but they never misinterpret breadcrumb trails or have trouble operating them.

When should you use breadcrumbs?

A great way to determine if a site would benefit from breadcrumb navigation is to generate a site map or a diagram representing the site’s navigation structure, and then analyze whether using breadcrumbs there would improve the user’s ability to navigate within and between categories:

  • You should use breadcrumbs when you have a large amount of content organized in a strict linear structure with defined categories. An excellent scenario is e-commerce website, in which a large variety of products is grouped into logical categories.
  • You shouldn’t use breadcrumbs for single-level websites that have no logical hierarchy or grouping.
  • It’s important to mention that if you are not sure short UAT testing with proper tool can always help.

Types of breadcrumbs

Breadcrumbs can either be on the basis of: location, path, and attribute.

Location Based – results in search engines

Location-based breadcrumbs are a representation of a site’s structure. They help visitors understand and navigate your website hierarchy or site’s hierarchy, which has multiple levels (usually more than two levels). This type of breadcrumb is very supportive for visitors who enters the site on a deeper level from an external source (e.g. search engine results).

location-based breadcrumbs
Location based navigation. Image credit: marketingland

Location-based navigation. Image credit: marketingland

In the example below (from BestBuy), each text link is for a page that is one level higher than the previous page or the one on its right.

location-based breadcrumbs bestbuy
Location Based Breadcrumb from the BestBuy

Location Based Breadcrumb from the BestBuy

Path Based – based on previous page

Path-based breadcrumbs (also known as a “history trail”) show the entire path traveled by the user to reach on a particular page. This type of breadcrumb link is typically dynamically generated. Sometimes path-based breadcrumbs can be helpful, but the most time they’re puzzling — visitors often browse very wildly, jumping from one page to the other.

Having such a meandering breadcrumb path doesn’t offer much help for user and can be easily replaced by a “Back” button in the browser. Finally, a history trail is useless for visitors who arrive directly at a page deep within the site.

Below is an example of path-based breadcrumb links that show two paths to navigate to the target page.

path-based breadcrumbs
Path based navigation. Image credit: Oracle

Path-based navigation. Image credit: Oracle

Attribute Based – breadcrumb trail

Attribute-based breadcrumb lists the categories to the specific page or most often product — as this kind of breadcrumb type are useful for e-commerce sites. This type of breadcrumbs helps the visitors to understand the relationship of products and offers a different approach.

attribute-based breadcrumbs marketingland
Attribute based navigation. Image credit: marketingland

Attribute-based navigation. Image credit: marketingland

For example, in TM Lewin, breadcrumb trails show the attributes of the items displayed on a particular page:

attribute-based breadcrumbs-example
This page displays all suits that have the attribute of ‘Slim Fit’. Image credit: T.M. Lewin
breadcrumbs apple website
Apple uses a breadcrumbs navigation to support the primary navigation

This page displays all suits that have the attribute of ‘Slim Fit’. Image credit: T.M. Lewin

Hierarchy or history?

A rule of thumb for breadcrumbs is to show the site hierarchy, not the user’s history. Thus, use location-based/attribute-based breadcrumbs, not path-based ones.

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Breadcrumb navigation best practices

When designing a breadcrumb navigation, make sure to keep following things in mind. Breadcrumb navigation is an additional aid to improve your users’ experience on your site.

Breadcrumbs as an additional navigation

Breadcrumb navigation should be regarded as an extra feature and shouldn’t replace effective primary navigation menus. Keep in mind that it’s a convenience feature; a secondary navigation scheme; an alternative way to navigate around your web site.

Image credit: Dribbble

Apple uses a breadcrumbs navigation to support the primary navigation

Don’t link current page in breadcrumb navigation

The last item in the last location based breadcrumb navigation and trail (current user’s location) is optional — if you want to display it, make sure that it’s not clickable or tappable. Since users are already on the page, it does not make any sense to add a link of the current page to the breadcrumb navigation.

Use separators

The most recognizable symbol for separating links in breadcrumb trails is the “greater than” symbol (>). Typically, the > sign is used to denote a hierarchy based breadcrumbs, as in the format of Parent category > Child category. Other symbols used are arrows pointing to the right (→), right angle quotation marks (») and slashes (/). The choice depends on the aesthetics of the site and the type of breadcrumb used:

Image credit: Dribbble

Select size & padding

Think carefully about target size and padding add breadcrumbs when designing. There should be enough gap between different breadcrumb levels. Otherwise, people might find it hard to use them, especially on a mobile interface. But at the same time you don’t want your breadcrumbs dominate the page, thus they should be less prominent than the primary navigation menu.

Don’t make it the focal point of the design

You should not use fancy fonts or bright color because these will beat the very purpose of using breadcrumb navigation. A full breadcrumb menu or navigation shouldn’t  be the first item that grabs the user’s attention when landing on a page. The breadcrumb trail below isn’t bad, but it’s too eye-catching and might distract visitors from the primary navigation and main content.

breadcrumbs navigation
Image credit: Dribbble

Image credit: Dribbble

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Google doesn’t make breadcrumb navigation look fancy, but users can easily locate google search, and use it.

breadcrumbs google website


All that breadcrumbs do is make it easier for visitors to move around the site, assuming its content and overall structure makes sense. It’s one of the few simple things that enhances website experience and fosters user comfort. And that’s sufficient contribution for something that takes up only one line in the design.

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